Stone calendar


From the history of Armenian coins. 1.First Armenian coins


The coins of kings of Sophene (Tsopk) dated to the second half of the 3rd century BC are believed to the first Armenian coins.
Coat of arms of Erivan (Yerevan 1843 y.)


On the green field silver Echmiatsin church with golden domes and crosses.
Coat of arms of Tiflis


Coat of arms of Tiflis (1843) consisted of two parts:
POTTERY


In traditional housekeeping at Armenians the pottery prevailed.
ARMENIAN CROSS STONES (KHACHKARS) A. L. Yakobson


A. L. Yakobson ARMENIAN CROSS STONES
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Armenian carpets

 

Armenian KarpetIn the Middle Ages, according to the arabian geographer of XII century As-Saalibi, the sheep wool from Armenia on quality was on the second place, after egyptian, the third place was taken away the persian wool. It was supplemented with use of a soft goat wool, silk, later — a clap and flax, gold and silver threads.

Preparation of a wool for carpet was enough difficult. A wool to ten times washed out in flowing water, pulled out, spun on spindles or distaffs, took up, painted, fixed a paint alum, salt and lime to make it shine more, and soaked in whey.

About colors for wool at that time is necessary to tell more in detail. The legendary place among the armenian dyes occupy «Wordan karmir» — the red paint received from a root worm — cochineal, extended in the Ararat valley. It was taken out to the different countries of the world, till now it is known in a lexicon of artists as a carmine. From iron ocher received a greenish mineral paint — hrisokoll. The dark blue Armenian paint — - ladzhvard is described by Pliniy senior as «armenium». Herodot mentions a madder — red «rubia». Vegetative paints received from a saffron, an immortelle, an ink nutlet, a green nutshell. At dyeing all of them gave unlimited number of shades of all primary colours and were extremely persistent.

Armenian Karpet

Carpets were developed on weaving looms — vertical and horizontal. Prominent feature Armenian carpet is application of a specific kind viscous, special knots and pile height. Special attention is paid to flatness and durability of lateral edges, the length of carpets reached six metres.

Weavers reproduced patterns on memory that led to free improvisation, it was happened, near to the machine tool there was a example, sometimes the necessary colours of a yarn and number of knots it was specified by the master. In XIX-th century editions with sketches of carpets, colour drawings and calculations for house carpet started to appear.

Ornaments of the Armenian carpets are very various, the most ancient group of ornaments which do not have analogues in carpet art— «wishapagorg» (dragon carpet). The important link of a composition of a field of a carpet is itself «wishap» (dragon) — the character of the Armenian folklore, entitling the good, the evil qualities. The carpet field is filled by a vertical composition which the mirror reflexion divides a carpet on the centre on two equal parts.

Later there are carpets with a life tree in which composition harmonous trees are allocated.

In a XVII-th century come out plant-geometrical type of the carpets which central socket is decorated by an uneasy and magnificent vegetative decor, and on free fields the stylised floating ducks, birds with the combined wings, horses.

Carpets with "the octahedrons", also concerning plant geometric type, are characteristic for a XVIII-th century.

In compositions of some carpets the important place is occupied with an eagle, and also a cross which is the major element of ornaments of the Armenian Middle Ages.

The Armenian carpets were always appreciated extremely highly. Walls and floors of a palace of the arabian Caliphs have been covered by the Armenian carpets, the favourite wife of Caliph Garun al Rashid sat on «the Armenian carpet», all other wives — on «the Armenian pillows». The Armenian carpets were an ornament of palaces, they measured riches.

The Armenian negotiators, monopolists of carpets trade in the international market, took out carpets to Russia and Europe so they reached Moscow and Marseilles, have appeared in Holland and Venice.

Giotto and Caravaggio, Rubens and Rembrandt wrote interiors with the Armenian carpets.

Armenian Karpet
Modern Armenian carpet-makeres and artists and now manufacture the carpets of handwork which are in great demand all over the world.


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